This time I have made an entry in this blog, which is intended to be a place of analysis of matters related with TRANSPORT AND PORTS.
This time I feel obliged to write about the concept “GRIETA” or "CRACK", a word that is omnipresent in Argentina in all explanations about social facts of the Argentines.
In the mass media, family birthdays, messages with school friends, etc.
Most opinion makers use this gimmicky device to explain their “opinions” of all events that have to do with “politics”.
The word “crack” is always mentioned in “Mobilizations”, Strikes, Public Debates and cultural expressions.
After watching one of the six hours long televisión-programs during the afternoons of Monday 3rd and Tuesday 4th of september, I decided to write a VERY RARE NOTE IN THIS BLOG:
I WISH TO INVITE THE INHABITANTS OF THIS BEAUTIFUL COUNTRY, to think about what is said and written about ARGENTINA and Argentines in the world.
Some of those things are very nice, others are going to receive many critics of my readers, but there are psychiatrists who recommend reading it as a very necessary "remedy" in these days of convulsion and chaos.
In the first place, that Argentina is a BEAUTIFUL country that has all the potential to be one of the best countries of the planet, which has the capacity to feed 5 times (or much more) of the number of people living in the country, with a climate that is good, with people of a high degree of intelligence.
This is so, if we remember that until the middle of the 50s it had an education system that served as an example of the 6 countries that began to form the European Union.
At that time it was predicted that within a decade, Argentina would be among the top 10 economies in the world.
Many Argentines who emigrated, reached positions of high categories in countries of the so-called first world.
Argentina is a country that has no racial or religious problems, which put many of those countries in danger.
Now the ugly part, which many will not like:
In the sixties, the Japanese had a joke, which said that some of them complained to God when he started creating the world, because he had given everything to Argentina and little to Japan.
To these "complainers" he replied, YES BUT I STILL DID NOT PUT PEOPLE.
Not long ago, in another country, Spain, there was talk of the EGO of Argentines, saying that an Argentine who wants to commit suicide, climbs to the top of his EGO and then throws himself down.
And another thing that also deserves attention, are jokes in Peru that told the poor that they should go to Argentina, because there they were immediately given homes in what they called "pueblos jovenes"(shanty towns).
Returning to one of the programs of Maxi Montenegro on Tuesday:
In several of the debates, with different political opinions, where everyone wants to talk and no one listens, Maxi intervened very correctly.
That's why I sent him a tweet, advising him to summarize the main parts of that program.
First he had to inform the viewers something of the "best" participants and then show his correct interventions in his program, always leaving the identifications on the screen, so that people can understand well what it was all about.
Then I watched another program, where the same thing happened, until there was a very short but excellent intervention by Mr. Hugo Perico Perez, a well-known ex-soccer player.
For this intervention I put an entry in my Facebook:
The country needs more people like Mr. Hugo Perico Perez, who participated with a clear CLAIM to THE JOURNALISTS OF ALL THOSE PROGRAMS, THAT ALL THOSE PROGRAMS MUST HAVE THE MAIN OBJECTIVE TO FIND WAYS TO CLOSE THE CRACK.
YOU MUST CLOSE THE CRACK IF YOU WANT TO SAVE THE COUNTRY. Antonio Zuidwijk
This immediately received this comment:
Juan Carlos Fusero Very good your comment Antonio.
And this gave me the courage to continue with the topic:
Now I ask all my contacts that they try to form an action on all possible Facebooks, to start something like was done in another occasion, which managed to organize a similar public claim in the Plaza de May not long ago.
It is unfortunate that there are still opportunists in ALL POLITICAL PARTIES, WHO TRY TO “BRING WATER TO THEIR OWN MILLS”.
THEY SHOULD STOP TRYING TO TAKE WATER ONLY TO THEIR OWN MILL.
ALL PARTIES ARE TO BLAME.
THEY SHOULD CLOSE THEIR MOUTHS FOR A WHILE AND FIRST SHOULD TRY TO FORM THE BASIS TO MAINTAIN GOVERNABILITY.
In this blog, www.antonioz.com.ar I have written a lot about this "Plan".
After the major changes which just have been announced by the aurhorities, some points should be brought to their attention.
In this note the main points have been reflected.
The epic of the M.V. "REPUBLICA ARGENTINA".
During the difficult voyage of the M.V."REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA", which is searching a safe port, it has encountered head-winds and storms.
And now it entered a HURRICANE, just at a time when the ship is in a sea full of rocks.
If the ship touches one of the rocks, it will sink.
What should a Captain do in this situation?Captain Macri who is in command of the ship "REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA" decided to request the assistance of a “PILOT”, to assist him in the navigation between the dangerous rocks.
Captain Macri has the full confidence only of a third of his crew, the complete distrust of another third party and the rest do not give their opinion, waiting for the results of how the captain is handling his ship in the hurricane.
It is those "undecided" who will decide with their vote if the Captain will continue in command on the next trip.
(In this real case they will decide if he will continue or not in 2019 as President, if he has the strength to continue the difficult task). Captain Macri decided to choose F.M.I as a pilot.But while the pilot was climbing to the bridge, he left the engines "FULL AHEAD", without a change course. This was a serious mistake.
The captain must lower the speed and must first put the pilot in touch with what is happening with his vessel, so that the pilot can give his advice.
It seems that he is doing this now.
Great changes are announced at this moment.
Now Captain Macri must do the SELF-CRITICS THAT HE ANNOUNCED BEFORE A "SPIRITUAL RETREAT" HE HAD PLANNED IN CHAPADMALAL, which was not fulfilled.
One area where he can probably find PROOF OF ERRORS committed in the 31 MONTHS OF HIS GOVERNMENT, is how the MODERNIZATION PLAN OF THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES has been addressed.
Following advice from his cabinet, President Macri appointed Mr. G. Mortola as his "navigation officer". (Trustee of the General Administration of Ports, S.A.).
But, according to many experts on the subject, Mr. Mortola DOES NOT HAVE THE CERTIFICATES THAT THIS IMPORTANT POSITION REQUIRES.
There are several articles in www.tradenews.com.ar, and in a blog of the FOUNDATION OUR SEA”" www.nuestromar.org” which deserve to be read carefully.
In some comments you can find the evidence that since January 2016 serious mistakes have been made. Many know this, but few have brought this forward to public knowledge.
If Captain Macri wants to act as a good CAPTAIN, he should request his PILOT NOW WHAT HIS OPINION IS of this PLAN.
He should ask the F.M.I. to make an analysis of what is written in the articles of THIS BLOG, where problems of the MODERNIZATION PLAN OF THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES are discussed.
It is a "PLAN" that has an estimated cost between US $ 1.000.000.000 and US$ 1.200.000.000.
In that PLAN much is spoken about the rights of 44 million inhabitants, to have a COMPETITIVE PORT.
But that seems absolutely IMPOSSIBLE with a PLAN OF MODERNIZATION WITH SUCH A TREMENDOUS COST, with the conditions that have been described.
The PLAN is of utmost importance for the COMPETITIVENESS OF THE COUNTRY and if errors are made again in the decisión, Argentina will continue to go around in the same mistakes that have been committed for 70 years, which are the fault of the present situation.The lack of open discussions of what our Logistics Chains require, are the underlying causes.
THIS IS A DIFFICULT TASK, WHICH NEEDS A PROPER STUDY. The country must form THE EXPERTS WHO IN THE FUTURE WILL DEFEND THE PRODUCERS AND CONSUMERS OF THE COUNTRY, IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE "LOGISTIC PLANS", SOMETHING THAT NEVER HAS BEEN DONE SO FAR.
THE PRODUCERS AND CONSUMERS OF THE COUNTRY WILL PAY THE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES IF THE GOVERNMENT WOULD INSIST WITH THIS PLAN.These new experts must participate ACTIVELY IN THE VERY NECESSARY DIALOGUE TIGHT FROM HE BEGINNING, AS WAS PROPOSED BY O.E.C.D. AT THE START OF
THE NEW GOVERNMENT.
THE PRESENT PLAN IS TOTALLY INFLEXIBLE.
NOW ALL THE PORTS OF THE WORLD MAKE FLEXIBLE PLANS, taking in account that there are many “UNKWONS" of HOW MARITIME TRANSPORTATION WILL BE in the coming years, after the 9 years long crisis period ends.
THIS AFFECTS THE WHOLE WORLD AND IS OF EXTREME IMPORTANCE FOR THE FUTURE OF THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES.
And among the "minefields" that make the situation of this country so difficult, there are the problems WITH LABOUR-UNIONS that the PLAN generates.
There is also much to analyze in that PLAN, which is worth applying to many other government plans.PRIORITIES MUST BE FIXED where and how the little MONEY that is left, will be spent.
To those who have an interest in the subject, it is advisable to read in this website the article: WHAT LESSONS CAN BE LEARNED OF THE FAILED INITIATIVE OF THE EX-SUBSECRETARY OF PORTS J.METZ of January 2016 TO FORM HIS CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL?
I hope this suggestion will be accepted, as it is very likely that it is applicable in many cases.
My note about the crisis which Argentina is suffering once more,might have been avoided if instead of the easy and "optimistic way", a difficult way wpould have been chosen.
This idea was published in the newspaper LA NACION, when the new government just had started. The titel I had chosen was:A POSSIBLE PLAN FOR THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES, which the editor changed to INTERMODAL TRANSPORT. THIS ARTICLE CAN BE OPENED HERE.
For this I wish to make this entry in the english part of my blog: My note to an politician , mr. Julio Barbaro who voted for Presidente Macri and now is disppointed.
Dear mr.Barbaro, I believe that EVERYONE SHOULD COOPERATE SO THAT PRESIDENT MACRI WILL BE ABLE TO FULFILL HIS TERM IN THE BEST POSSIBLE WAY. This will be for the benefit of all the inhabitants.
But already the first conflicts begin and the authorities react with speeches that they are on the right track, that there will be no more corruption, that the bids for infrastructure projects are now transparent, etc. There is no doubt that they think that this way they will win the elections.
But as you said Mr. Barbaro, THERE IS A LOT TO BE CORRECTED. This is what I am trying to make clear with this message. One of the problems that arises is A SERIOUS CONFLICT that has been generated by the Modernization Plan of the Port of B.A., As can be found in this blog, this Plan was first announced in January 2016 A.G.P.´s trustee, Gonzalo Mórtola. In my opinion, this issue is not within the scope of A.G.P., but of the Undersecretary of Ports and Waterways, which is the National Authority for the application of Law 24,093 on Port Activities.
There are many articles in this blog where I express my opinion that there are flaws in the transport policy and port-plans, which deserve attention.
In this announced meeting, where the authorities will meet with businessmen and the union that gathers the port workers, will define if this port conflict will start with serious strikes, which may stifle the economy, or if a finally agreement can be reached.
There are many EMPLOYERES of port-workers who know the problems, but I am very worried that NONE OF THEM REALIZES THAT EVERYONE WILL LOSE IF PRESIDENT MACRI IS NOT WARNED WHERE THESE REAL PROBLEMS ARE.
Many know them, but so far nobody has brought them to the attention of the authorities.
THERE IS A REAL DANGER THAT SOON THE CHAOS will start IN THIS COUNTRY. In this regard, I participated in an exchange of opinions among a group of people from the environment, where I expressed my concerns, with all the details. I did it because I hoped that one of them could send my concerns to the attention of President Macri.
In that exchange, one person, XXX, said: There are two models of confrontation in Argentina: Nr.1. A model based on "popular heat" that tries to perpetuate itself in power and when it has to leave or it is cast, it inevitably leaves a socio-economic bomb It is not easily disabled. When it loses power it makes a bloody opposition, Mr.XXX gave examples of Presidents Alfonsin and De la Rua.
Nr.2.-A more technocratic model based on government efficiency and the implementation of State institutions; Justice Service, BCRA, INDEC, a more ethical bidding system for public Works and others.
And in conclusion, Mr. XXX says: Either we copy Venezuela (neo Marxism) in the first case, or we follow a more normal country in the second type, like Chile, Canada etc.
To this statement of mr. XXX I answered: But if we want to approach a "Chile-like" country, we must follow Chile's examples and not simply make DECLAMATIONS. When President Macri summoned his officials to the Spiritual Retreat in Chapadmalal, he asked for AUTO-CRITICS in a VERY CLEAR way. No one can deny that he was NOT SATISFIED WITH THE RESULTS OF 2 YEARS OF HIS GOVERNMENT. But instead of AUTO-CRITICS, HE RECEIVED SELF-PRAISES. That is why Messrs. Negri and Monzó withdrew BEFORE THE FINAL ACT. Everyone knows that they were out of the "red circle" for some time. And the results came a few months later.
I asked Mr. XXX, who was reading in copy, if he did not agree that mistakes were made?
On my site www.antonioz.com.ar I have given proof of the errors that have been clearly committed in the Ministry of TRANSPORTATION, which enjoys a good image.
Especially the serious errors committed by A.G.P. with the Modernization Plan of the Port of Buenos Aires. I think that what happens with the port may damage the image of the President, for 2 reasons: In the first place, because the Unions threat with strikes. They are fed up with the unfulfilled promises that Mortola made since March 2016. And this could be used by Hugo Moyano, to can make serious strikes in all transportd, which could suffocate the country and make the country ungovernable, as happened in other crises. Secondly, because there are things that the voters of the Matanza and other large conglomerations are going to use, which usually decide who wins the election. THEY ARE GOING TO SHOUT THAT MACRI GOVERNES FOR THE RICH AND THAT PROOF OF THIS CAN BE FOUND IN THE POLICY TO CONSTRUCT HIGH BUILDINGS WITH A NICE VIEW TO THE RIVER, where now the best spaces are to operate with containers. The Unions are going to say that the the authorities are doing everything so that it will be impossible to keep the Port of Buenos Aires for containers. It is known fact that a plan of US $ 1000 to 1,500 million US dollars is IMPOSSIBLE.
That is why I hope that President Macri and Messrs. Marcos Peña and Dujovne,will analyze the events of the last days and that they wake up.
I hope that they realize that the extensive public discussions that are now taking place, show that they must change the course and stop talking that they are doing EVERYTHINGN WELL. I hope they really will start to correct errors. And in my blog there is strong evidence that serious mistakes have been made in the Plans of A.G.P. They have hired EXTERNAL CONSULTANTS, but refuse to publish the advices these have given. In www.tradenews there are many articles and comments that prove what I say. A.G.P. NOW MUST ACCEPT A DEBATE I suggested already 18 years ago.
In this way President Macri will be able to start recovering the voters he is losing.
You could find information in Spanish in http://www.antonioz.com.ar and look for a field: with the following text: The lessons that can be found in the unsuccessful attempt of the former Under-Secretary Jorge Metz to open his CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL.
This message should also reach THE OFFICIALS OF THE F.M.I., who must control how Argentina is spending the few dollars that still can be gathered. I would like to receive opinions about this entrance.
In a recent visit of Mr. Jan Hoffmann of UNCTAD to Buenos Aires, he was (briefly) interviewed by a well-known local journalist and made some important declarations.
His interview (in spanish) can be opened in this link: https://tradenews.com.ar/puerto-buenos-aires-consolidacion-navieras-jan-hoffmann).
In 2000 Mr. Hoffmann worked for E.C.L.A.C Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ,when the privatization of the ports of Chle and Peru was in full swing.
He then made a very important study: “The potential of “hub-ports” on the Pacific Coast of South America”, in which freight-rates were very important factors.
This study still is important.
In order to try to bring some of the important points forward, I made a first entry in the Spanish part of my blog, which I have freely translated in English, which can be opened here.( Read more).
I am still working on some additional points, which are briefly mentioned as “notes” in this English part.
This entry replaces a very confused one I made the day after I received a warning from my doctor that, for “health-reasons” I had to close this blog.
Those reasons are difficult to explain, but I hope that after reading this entry, these will be understood. They all have to do with the undeniable problems around the “Modernization Plan for the Port of Buenos Aires”, which A.G.P. started in December 2015. Moreover the doctor told me that I should finish my participation in the “Open Debate” in a blog which the Foundation Nuestro Mar, (=Our Sea), had opened in order to start an open discussion about those problems.
Some of these are very serious and still getting worse and if these are not solved correctly, they might have a negative effect on the economy of Argentina. (See www.nuestromar.org, where with some efforts you could find this in Spanish, in section “Puertos” under “Compilado” ).
Since January 2016, A.G.P. is working on the “tender-conditions” for a 30 year new concession of ONE container-terminal in the so-called New Port of Buenos Aires, after the 3 present concessions finish, which according to present conditions is in September 2019.
For the drafting of these very complicated tender-conditions , AGP has hired consultants (A.L.G.) that have charged already US$ 772.483,00 according to “Resolución AGP 129/2016” and another US$ 168.025,00 under “Res. AGP 169/2017. Right from the start, A.G.P. repeatedly promised the port-labor-unions, that they would make clear clauses to “safeguard the rights of the people which are now on the pay-role of the 3 present concessionaires”.
This was understood by the unions that all of them would have to be absorbed by the new concessionaire, which, according to union explanations, has been confirmed in writing by AGP. Although no information is available on the text of this agreement, official publications have confirmed that an agreement was made at which day of the “pay-roles” all persons would be identified.
During the full year 2017, the trustee of A.G.P., had several meetings with the labor-unions, in which he repeatedly promised to give them the exact text of this “tender-condition” in the “next meeting”, but this was never done and finally, the port-labor-unions began to threaten with “actions” in October 2017.
These have always had very serious negative consequences for the economy and many people started to request “clarity” and the government decided to take the principal part out of the meetings between A.G.P. and the unions and the Ministry of Labor intervened and started to handle this important problem.Although at the age of 86, I am totally retired and have no direct interest at all in any of these matters, the way these problems were handled made me SERIOUSLY UPSET and I suffered “strokes of high blood-pressure”.
I felt totally frustrated that my ideas, which were accepted before December 2015 in the so called think-tank “PENSAR” (=think in Spanish), in which I actively participated, were never accepted in any contact with authorities after January 2016.It was this frustration which finally caused my high blood-pressure.
FOUNDATION NUESTROMAR ("OUR SEA"), with a long history in Argentina, has put its blog, www.nuestromar.org at the disposal of professionals, who wish to participate in an open debate about the Modernization Plan for the Port of Buenos Aires.
Because I always have claimed that somebody should start such a debate, I sent my application immediately, which was accepted. On Saturday,July 15th, www.nuestromar.org published this with the title: The first contribution to the debate for the Modernization of the Port of Buenos Aires.
This was followed already on Monday July 17th by a contribution of Mr. Rodolfo Rocca, General Manager of the Port Authority of La Plata.
PORTSTRATEGY has published several important articles that refer to the Modernization Plan for the Port of Buenos Aires. On JULY 8th I sent a new proposal,The future roles of ports of the Atlantic- and Pacific-coasts in both hemispheres. But the "program was fully booked till October", when this text probably would have lost its goal.
But because PORTSTRATEGY admitted that this article has its merrits, I have decided to put it in this blog.
Why does Argentina need INTERMODAL TRANSPORT POLICIES? Read more.
Possibly some readers would like to have an idea of what is written in the Spanish texts of my blog. It starts with this text:
Books are not written to be read in 15 minutes and neither is this blog.
And to give an example: everyone will understand that you cannot describe in a few minutes, the serious problems that presently exist for ships that are loaded in Rosario, to reach deeper water south of Montevideo. Now these vessels suffer great and costly delays.
And neither can one clarify in a few minutes, that those extra-costs will be for account of our PRODUCERS and that finally this problem affects the competitiveness of the whole country.
But there are really people who are in a "hurry" and for them I have prepared two short "presentations" to start this blog:
The first one is the "background" of this blog: Open here.
Within a logical sequence, these two important things are elsewhere in this blog.
Do you want to start well with the reading of this site, to understand the ABUNDANT lessons that have existed since 1970 and that we STILL HAVE NOT LEARNED? Then you must pay attention to a PPT written for “Intermodal Transportation classes” in 2010 in an ITBA / FUNDACIÓN LIBERTAD DE ROSARIO program, based on the best history of the CONTAINER.
It is the story of Arthur Donavan and Joseph Bonney's 2006: THE BOX THAT CHANGED THE WORLD, and it has been completed with some texts from 3 books of the Department of Transportartion D.O.T., with the title INTERMODAL FREIGHT-TRANSPORTATION. (Spanish text: open here).
As a second step, you have to read the presentation made in a M.B.A in the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) on November 12, 2015: Foreign Trade and Competitiveness, also with small adjustments. (Spanish text: open here).
As a third step I have adapted the third part of the M.B.A. of the UBA of November 12, 2015, which presented in a class of Professor Mr. Eduardo Parodi, currently an official in the Secretariat of Planning of the Ministry of Transportation: (Spanish text: open here).
Invited by Carmen Polo, Sub-secretary of “Planning” in the MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT and by Mr. Emilio Alzaga, I made the following presentation in March 2016:
HOW TO DEVELOP A PORT POLICY: (Spanish text: open here).
THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE “CITY OF BUENOS AIRES” WITH ITS “NEW PORT in 2019”. A pending debate. (Spanish text: open here)
On April 13th Cronista/Transport & Cargo published this article, which was reproduced in www.nuestromar.org: The port of Buenos Aires is planned with a concession of 50 years and US$ 1 billion investment.
To this article I made 3 comments in Nuestromar, which I will repeat in an extended form in this website, as a continuation of "Lessons that can be extracted from the failed Advisory Council of the Sub-Secretariat of Ports and Waterways".All CITIZENS of the country have the RIGHT that the Port of Buenos Aires be EFFICIENT, COMPETITIVE and INSERTED IN THE PLANS TO REDUCE POVERTY. The right to be "efficient and competitive" has been taken from the example in a similar case of 2014 by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, which was universally accepted.
And I believe that all well-meaning people of the country will agree that it must be inserted in the fight against poverty AND THAT we should not spend US$ 1 billion of state investments in a Plan that offers no guarantees of success.
A port always has negative effects for a city and its surroundings.
Therefore, the CITIZENS of the C.A.B.A. and Greater Buenos Aires, moreover have the RIGHT TO DEMAND PROOF that in the planning of this "efficient and competitive" port, those solutions have been sought that will cause the least possible inconvenience to them. And for this, studies must be made of the cargo flows which are generated by the port and to DECREASE and not to INCREASE the multiple cases that exist now, where empty trucks or circuits where trucks with the same cargo, cross the city twice.
That's the reason why I made this first comment in www.nuestromar.org:
Who will defend the rights of 40 million Argentines to have an EFFICIENT AND COMPETITIVE Port ? And moreover the right of the citizens of B.A. that this port will cause the least possible inconvenience, which has a port always has for a city?
The other question I posed, was this: Will it be taken into account in the "light-motiv" (from the "leit-motiv" in German, "leading" motive) of the necessary ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES, that in a country with 30%, PRIORITIES OF INVESTMENTS MUST BE MADE?
And last but not least: Will bad decisions that already have been taken, be corrected?
Articles in PORTSTRATEGY related with “Lessons that can be learned from the failed Consejo Consultivo (advisory council) of the Under-secretariat of Ports and Waterways”.
Article Portstrategy May 2nd 2017by Mr. Olaf Merk. Read more.
My letter of May 12th to Mr.Olaf Merk and his answer. Read more.
Argentina’s Rising Grains Production Strands Vessels in River Traffic February 16, 2017 by Reuters, Author at gCaptain. See more.
This important article deserved several comments, which I asent in a letter to Mr. Guillermo Wade of CAPYM, (Cámara de Actividades Portuarias y Marítimas/ Chamber of Maritime Agencies of Rosario). See more.
At the invitation of the Bar of Lawyers of Lomas de Zamora / University of Lomas de Zamora, I made a presentation on May 10th, 2016 on the impact that "the Laws of Transportation have had on the Competitiveness" of different countries.
An important part of this presentation is based on the study that was made by proffessors from the Universities of Nottingham and Lund. In 2013 they presented the results of their studies, which demonstrated the great benefits Intermodal Transport has had on the enormous growth of "World Trade" in the last decades.
One of the main objectives was to determine which of the two pillars of this growth has contributed more: Trade Facilitation, which eliminated many barriers to trade or Intermodal Transport, which drastically has reduced transport costs.
The 3 findings of these studies left no doubt:
The Universities did not intend to elaborate on the reasons why the central countries have benefitted most and simply informed that the most striking results were found in countries with ports with good rail connections and therefore the greatest benefits were found in "North-North traffics" (between core countries) and few in "North-South" or "South -South traffic".
Many think it is a matter of "infrastructure", but as you can read in other studies mentioned in this presentation, the core-countries have carefully studied all factors that have to do with "costs" to move a load or a person from one point to another, which are much more than the mere costs charged by carriers.
In this presentation, the emphasis is on the studies that were made about the relation between Laws of Transportation and Competitiveness and about the studies that showed the best positive results.
Observations, suggestions and constructive criticisms are welcome.